It is not sure if the ligurian come from the west or from the east, from the north or from the south, but a first presence of Ligurian there was between the late of VI century B.C. and the III century A.D. In the course of the next centuries Genoa assumes a physiognomy more precise, with conformation of "civitas" in the IV century when it is supposed that there was a cathedral. In the VI century was confirmed a real merchant centre so much that, in spite of the destructions caused from the longobard attack of 641, Genoa collected itself, rebuilt homes and walls and prosecuted the own commercial trades. The Medieval was an important period for the town, connected indissolubly at the Crusades: the Genoese partecipated at the expeditions in Holy Land also for the desire to conquer news markets in East. In 1155 Genoa erected a most imposing city-walls to defend itself from Barbarossa, which in 1062 made pacts with the town in change of an help against the Norman. From the first years of 1200 and until at 1339, year in which was appointed doge Simone Boccanegra, Genoa was characterized from politic instability caused from the rivalship between the noble families of the town, that may be found also in the urban map of the town: every faction had a small portion of the areas that could be easily isolated and defended from the "attacks" of the other families. Passing so, alternately, from the civic "Companion" at the consulates, from the rules of the foreign podestà at those of the doges, always under the seesawing protectorates of Milan and France. Although that, in any case, Genoa was always one of the maximum commercial and economic centre of Europe.
It arrives so the Sixteenth century, well-known also the "century of the genoese". In this period, in fact, Genoa was a real power of european level, capable to give money at the greater government, from the roman curia at the spanish empire, at the big european courts. All began in 1528, when Andrea Doria, called "the Prince", tired to serve France, that had then the soveregnty on Genoa, he placed himself at the emperor Carlo V, prepared a fleet of twelve galleys and conquered his town. From that moment began a period of large brightness and riches for "the proud", also thanks for the refound politic calm and the elemination of the numerous adverse factions that from time disputed themselves the power. From 1528 at 1797, year of the final fall of the Republic of Genoa, there were not more doges "at life", but with biennial office. Rich and independent in the '500 Genoa enriche itself of magnificent palaces and of artistic works of large value. Worked in town Pierin del Vega, Galeazzo Alessi, Luca Cambiaso and Rubens. Unfortunately in 1684 Genoa was bombed from the sea from the French and in 1815 fell under the power of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
During all the ninth century Genoa lived a period without intellectual, cultural and financial excitement, but in the "parlours" where were assembled important personages begin conversations of freedom that carried at the unity of Italy. The years that follow are connected at the story of the Nation: the burst of the first world war, the accession of the fascism and the second world conflict of which the town carries still indelible tracks.
In the '900 Genoa loses part of its merchant features and, above all after 1945, begins to develop the industrial sector. Are born ironworks, steel-mills, industries of base and sugar-houses and takes vitality the naval yards, still now flower at the buttnhole of the genoese industrial production. Now the ligurian capital counts 600.000 inhabitants and 50.000 firms.
Genoa climbs at the altars of Europe in 2004 when, in may 1998, was nominated Town of Europe: Genoa chose to interpret this roll refounding innovative routes to exploit its treasures and render accessible at the european public particular aspects of the own culture. In the course of this year have held exhibitions, meetings, shows, concerts, inaugurations of new museums between that the Museum of the Sea and a rich program that had involved every street, every 'caruggio' (alley) and every historic palace of the town. Genoa is as much ever living, accomodates musical festival (like the Goa Boa that it is developed at half july by the fair area and the Musical Festival of the Mediterranean always at july), demonstrations of poem and multicultural literature and a large ferment for the streets in the streets of the weekend, above all in summer.
Walking for the historic centre can be admired the characteristic closes of the "carrugi", narrov alleys that are unknoted between ancient abodes of the ancientest centre of the town; instead to admire the extraordinary patrimony of art of Genoa is necessary scour Garibaldi road with the White, Red and Tursi Palace and still Spinola Palace in Pellicceria Square that accomodates the National Gallery, Real Palace in Balbi road and Ducal Palace, actual seat of numerous manifestations and exhibitions of international standing. It is not possible say to have seen Genoa without a visit at its Ancient Port: entirely restored offers a mondern congressional centre, expositive spaces and the famous Aquarium of Genoa, that accomodates over 6000 types of animals.
The environs of the Town and of the Gulf of the Tigullio on which are appeared the numerous commons of the province, offer enchanting places between coloured houses, small beaches, reefs at peak on the sea: bathing locality like Arenzano and Cogoleto, worldly and renowned places for the presence of VIP, like Portofino and Santa Margherita Ligure, then Chiavari with the medieval porticos of the centre, ideal to stroll and for the shopping and then the Regional Natural Parks, witnesses of the attention and of the genoese respect for the nature.
Laborious and patients, gotten used to tear cultivable pieces of ground from the slopes of the mountain, to defy the traps of the sea and to live of their products, the ligurian people still now boasts of a rich handicraft production that soars from the goatees realized at tombolo, at the jewellery in filigree of gold and silver, then embroidered and damsk materials, prized velvets, things in slate and chairs-mending called the "chiavarine" because typical of the town of Chiavari.
And we colud not end this brief Gulf of the Tigullio without speak, even if short, of the typical products: from the pesto at the sauce of nuts, at the cake (simple or at the cheese, aboriginal of Recco stuffed with stracchino), fish in soupe or grilled, farinata (low cake of meal of grams), trofie (fresh pasta), pansotti (ravioli of fresh pasta stuffed of ricotta with aromatic grasses), olive-oil and wines produced with ulivi and vines cultivated on little hectares of ground obtained terracing the side of the hills at peak on the sea (between the wines remember the Vermentino, the Pigato, the Rosses of Dolceacqua and the Sciacchetrà from accompany at the sweets).